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Getting the measure of early leaving from VET in Europe

Author(s):Irene Psifidou and Anthie Kyriakopoulou Publication date:2023

As Refernet partner, ECBO contributed to the first European study on early school leaving (ESL) in vocational education (ELVET – Early leaving from vocational education and training). The report provides insight into the main causes of dropout and what different countries are doing to prevent ESL in vocational education. Key factors contributing to dropout are:

  1. Low educational outcomes and low attendance
  2. Problems with health and well-being
  3. Little family involvement
  4. Insufficient guidance in making choices

Furthermore, it appears that countries still hardly have a clear definition for ESL specifically from VET. The report makes a proposal for this.

Finally, the authors make a number of policy recommendations including:

  • Supplement quantitative data on dropout with qualitative data to better understand the reasons for dropout;
  • Also pay attention to dropouts from apprenticeships (BBL).

The report is available for download here: Getting the measure of early leaving from VET in Europe | CEDEFOP (

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